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Target Diseases

 

Cancers affecting children are generally different from those affecting adults. Some forms of blood cancers (e.g. leukaemia, lymphomas) are common, but some solid tumours either do not occur in adults, or are extremely rare (e.g. neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma).

 

Drugs that were originally developed for adult cancers continue to be used to treat children, despite the poor results. Currently there is little incentive for companies to develop drugs specifically for children or to systematically evaluate adult drugs in childhood cancers, due to the high costs and potentially low return on investment.

 

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Type of Cancer

Definition

Solid tumour

Cancer not originating in the blood.  It is a solid tumour mass, which sometimes can be surgically removed, but can spread in more advanced cases

Leukaemia/Lymphoma

Cancer of the blood

CNS (Central Nervous System) tumours

Tumour originating in the brain or spinal chord

Neuroblastoma

Tumour of the peripheral nervous system originating outside the brain and the spinal cord.  Typically occur in the abdomen, neck and limbs

Gonadal GCT (Germ Cell Tumour)

 

Cancer originating in the ovaries or testes

Wilm’s Tumour

Kidney tumour

Thyroid Carcinoma

Cancer of the thyroid gland

Osteosarcoma

Bone cancer

Rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewings Sarcoma

Aggressive cancers of the connective tissue, typically originating in the abdomen

Melanoma

Skin cancer

Retinoblastoma

Cancer of the eye

Hepatoblastoma

Liver cancer

 

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